The elbow is complex. It consists of three bones, the joints between them, the ligaments that keep it stable, and the muscles that generate strength and motion.
Your elbows take a lot of stress from regular movements like lifting or carrying a bag, as well as more complex motions like throwing a baseball. The muscles surrounding the elbow are also used for motion in the wrist.
Elbow problems can be caused by overuse, traumatic injury, and/or changes that occur naturally in your body.
Suffering from elbow pain? Contact us to learn about treatment options.
How Your Elbow Works
The elbow consists of three bones: the upper arm bone (humerus) and two forearm bones – the ulna and the radius. The ulna runs on the bottom of your forearm from the wrist to the elbow, and is used to rest your arms. It has a U shape that holds the bottom of the upper arm bone (humerus). The radius rotates around the ulna. The radius and ulna are responsible for turning the palm of your hand up and down.
Two main ligaments in the elbow help provide stability. These ligaments are commonly injured in sports or through traumatic injuries. The radial collateral ligament stabilizes the outside of the elbow while the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) provides stability to the inside of the elbow. The UCL is more commonly injured, as this ligament can be stretched with throwing or racket-type sports.
Four main muscle groups surround the elbow joint and help power the elbow and wrist. The biceps muscles are located on the front of the upper arm bone, and bend the elbow. On the backside of the upper arm bone, the triceps muscles straighten the elbow. Some wrist flexor tendons attach on the outside of the elbow, while wrist extensors attach to inside of the elbow. These muscles work together to allow the hand to turn palm-up and palm-down, as well as bend and straighten the elbow.
Two main nerves, the ulnar nerve and radial nerve, can cause pain in the elbow and numbness/weakness in the hand. The ulnar nerve travels behind the inside of your elbow and is responsible for the zinging pain down into your hand when you hit your funny bone. This nerve provides feeling for your little finger and half of your ring finger on the palmar side of the hand.
The radial nerve travels through the muscle of your forearm and provides some sensation to the back of your hand, but primarily is responsible for powering the muscles in the forearm and hand.
Evaluating Elbow Pain
Elbow-pain evaluation starts with you giving us a history of your problem: when and how it started, how it feels, and treatments you’ve tried. We also ask you about other medical conditions that may contribute to your elbow pain. We do a physical exam to test your elbow’s structures, check its range of motion and strength, and do tests that can uncover specific problems.
Based on your physical exam, we may recommend a cortisone injection. The injection’s numbing medicine helps us determine the pain source, while the cortisone can provide pain relief. Sometimes we order X-rays, to show us things like fractures, spurs, and changes from arthritis, or MRIs, to show us more bone detail as well as soft-tissue damage like ligament or tendon tears.
Whatever the cause of your elbow pain, we are dedicated to helping you find the best treatment. Request an appointment today.
Causes of Elbow Pain
- Less common causes – infection, tumors, or nerve problems
Treating Elbow Pain
Treatment of elbow pain is very specific to the diagnosis and severity of your symptoms.